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Qur'anic References Regarding Women

Compiled by Laila Al-Marayati, 1998

Creation

bullet Story of Adam and Eve 2:30-39, 7:11-25, 20:115-123 (conscious of nakedness), 15:26-40
bullet Created from one entity, then mate, then multitudes 4:1, 6:98
bullet Created out of male and female into nations and tribes 49:13
bullet Brought into being out of one entity 6:98, out of it, its mate 39:6
bullet Created from one entity, then mate so incline towards one another 7:189, mates of own kind 16:72, marriage-tie 53:54
bullet Created mates from selves (pairs/opposites) 36:36, 43:12, 51:49, 78:8
bullet Creates males/females out of drop of sperm 53:45, 75:37-39,92:3, out of loins, pelvic arch 86:5, 15:27

Gender Parity/Disparity

bullet Two female witnesses 2:282 Other references to witnesses: property of orphans, lewdness 4:6, 15; bequests 5:106-108, adultery 24:4-9, divorce 65:2
bullet Inheritance 4:7, 11-12, 33 176
bullet Blood money for murder (female for female, slave for slave) 2:178-9 (note 147)
bullet Reward for labor of believing men/women 3:195
bullet You are members, one from another 4:25
bullet Believing men and women get benefit from what they earn 4:32
bullet Believing men and women, protectors of one another 9:71-72
bullet Good deeds of believing men and women will be rewarded 4:124, 57:18, 48:5, 40:40, 9:72, 16:97, 48:5
bullet Say to believing men and believing women…33:35-36 ***
bullet Ask forgiveness for yourself and believing men/women 47:18, 71:28 (du’a)
bullet Suffering for hypocrites male/female, mercy for believers male/female 33:72, 57:12-13
bullet Corrupt women are for corrupt men 24:26
bullet Hypocrites, male/female 9:67-68, 48:6
bullet Those who persecute believing men/women and don’t repent will suffer in hell 85:10
bullet Those who malign believing men/women 33:58
bullet Baiya (pledge of allegiance to Prophet) from believing women 60:12

Marriage

bullet Unlawful to marry non-believers 2:221, 60:10-11
bullet Outlines who is lawful/unlawful for marriage, dowry 4:4, 19-28
bullet Lawful to marry women from People of the Book 5:5
bullet Do not betroth in secret 2:235
bullet They are your garments 2:187
bullet Approach wives as you will, they are your tilth, avoid sex during menses 2:222-223
bullet Consort with wives in goodly manner, do not keep against her will 4:19
bullet Friend by your side (spouse) 4:36
bullet Mates from among yourselves 7:189, 16:72, 42:11
bullet Ask for spouses/offspring who are a joy to our eyes 25:74
bullet Mates, tranquility and love 30:21
bullet Enemies among spouses and children, pardon and forbear 64:14
bullet God endowed men with descent and marriage-tie 25:55
bullet Get married even to your slaves, if can’t marry, stay chaste 24:32-33
bullet Be mindful of chastity, relations only with spouse or whom right hands possess 70:29-31, 23:5-6
bullet Men protectors of women, discord (nushuz), arbitration 4:34-35
bullet Nushuz from husband to wife 4:128
bullet Marriage to adopted son’s ex-wife 33:37-40
bullet Lawful women to Prophet includes slaves, first cousins, no more wives after this verse 33:50-52
bullet Polygamy 4:3, 127-129 (other references to orphans 2:219, 4:5, 6:152)

Divorce

bullet General rules 2:224-237, Ch. 65 (Talaq)
bullet Decisions re children (shura), nursing, parents not to suffer because of child 2:233
bullet Waiting period (iddah), treat in fair manner without harshness, spend on wife, children while pregnant, nursing (alimony/child support) 65:4-7, alimony 2:241
bullet No waiting period if marriage not consummated 33:49
bullet Khul, woman gives up dowry to free herself if no offense by husband 2:229
bullet Don’t retain women against their will 2:231
bullet Don’t hold women against their will, don’t take back dowry 4:19
bullet Rights equal, but men have precedence (daraja) 2:226-228 (cf: 6:165)
bullet Act with grace 2:237
bullet If do separate, God will provide 4:130
bullet Nushuz from husband, seek amicable settlement 4:127-130
bullet If choose to separate, take witnesses endued with justice; God grants a way out 65:2
bullet Arbitration in conflict 4:35
bullet Zihar forbidden 58:1-4
bullet Don’t send women back to mushrik husbands, don’t stay married to women unbelievers 60:10-11 (note 11: women not property)
bullet Don’t expel from homes unless guilty of immoral conduct 65:1
bullet Widows
bullet Iddat/remarriage 2;234-5 right to one year’s maintenance (unless remarries) 2:240

Sex Crimes

bullet Women guilty of immoral conduct (lewdness, implies homosexuality) 4:15-16
bullet Punishment for zina, slander 24:2-26
bullet Punishment for slandering chaste women, requirement for witnesses 24:4-25
bullet Corrupt women for corrupt men, chaste for chaste 24:3, 26
bullet Mind chastity 23:5, 70:29-30
bullet Do not commit zina 17:32, 25:68, 60:12
bullet Homosexuality (Lot) 7:80-84, 11:69-83, 15:58-76, 21:71, 26:160-174, 27:54, 29:29

Modesty

bullet Garments to cover nakedness, best garment is taqwa 7:26 (libasan)
bullet Lower gaze, guard modesty, don’t draw attention 24:30-31 (khimar)
bullet Cover bosom with outer garment 33:59 (jilbab)
bullet Women past age of marriage/sexual desire can cast aside outer garment 24:60 (thiyab)
bullet Awra 24:31, 58; 20:115-123 (Adam and Eve)

Women in Qur'an

bullet Mary 3:31-49 (bows down with those who bow down), never deviated from truth 5:75, 19:16-29, sign from God 23:50, 21:91, 4:156 (Mary as prophet, among those inspired ("rijal") 12:109,15:43, 21:7; "nas" 22:75)
bullet Queen of Sheba 27:23-44
bullet Wife of Abraham 11:71-73
bullet Zulaykha in story of Yusuf 12:24-35, 51
bullet Women in story of Moses, mother given inspiration 20:37-41, 52:39; sisters, wife of Pharoah 28:7-13, marriage of Moses 28:23-28
bullet Lot’s wife/Noah’s wife/Mary/wife of Pharoah are examples for all believers 66:9-10
bullet Prophet’s wives, Not like other women, greater punishment/reward, stay in houses 33:28-34
bullet Mothers of Believers 33:6
bullet Speak to his wives from behind a screen, don’t marry his widows 33:53-55
bullet Divulged confidence, offered divorce, may substitute better, virgin or previously married 66:1-5
bullet Marriage to Zaineb 33:37-40
bullet No more wives after this verse 33:50-52
bullet Story re Aisha and the necklace 24:11-20
bullet Lot’s family 11:77-81
bullet Wife of Abu Lahab Ch. 111
bullet God appointed wives, offspring for apostles 13:38
bullet Ascribing daughters to God 17:40, 37:149-143, 53:20-24 (Lat, Uzza), 53:27 (angels as women), 42:16-20 (females reared for ornament)

Concubines/Slavery

bullet Marry up to 4 women or from among whom right hands possess 4:3
bullet Marry slaves to avoid evil, better to abstain, marriage to captives 4:24-25, 24:32
bullet Don’t force slave girls into prostitution, if any desire freedom, give it 24:33
bullet Sexual relations with spouse or those whom right hands possess 23:6, 70:30
bullet Free slave to make up for breaking oath 5:89, 58:3, to make up for zihar 58:3
bullet Charity to free a slave 9:60
bullet True piety includes the freeing of slaves 2:177
bullet Share sustenance with slaves 16:71, free slave, feed hungry, care for orphans, etc. 90:13
bullet Don’t display beauty except in front of relatives and whom right hands possess 24:31, 58
bullet Lawful for Prophet’s wives to appear in front of slaves 33:55
bullet Prophet not to keep captives unless battles strenuously 8:67-70

Female Infanticide

bullet Face darkens with news of birth of a girl 16:57-60, 43:17-18
bullet Asked for what crime she was killed 81:8-9
bullet Don’t kill children for fear of want 6:151, 17:31
bullet Baiya from women includes pledge not to kill their children 60:12
bullet Slaying of children seems good to unbelievers 6:137, 140

Hereafter

bullet Rewards of this world and the hereafter with God 4:135, 18:107
bullet Reward for Truthful, God pleased with them and they with him 5:119
bullet Believers attain paradise, God removes lingering thoughts and feelings 7:42, 15:45-48
bullet Realm beyond human perception, no empty talk, peace, sustenance 19:61-63, 56:25-26
bullet Waters beneath feet, gardens of bliss, "salam" to those entering paradise 10:9, 20:75-76
bullet What is with God is everlasting, rewarded according to best of deeds 16:96-97
bullet Paradise described: jewelry, silk, couches 18:31, 22:23; mansions, etc. 29:57-59; water, milk, wine, honey 47:15
bullet Good deeds of believing men and women rewarded 4:124, 40:40, 9:72, 48:5
bullet Enter paradise, you and spouses 43:70
bullet Joined with righteous among parents, spouses 13:23-24, 40:8, 29:9; and offspring 52:21
bullet Resurrected as virgins, full of love 56:34-40**, 43:70, 36:55
bullet Spouses pure 2:25, 3;15, 4:57
bullet Recline on couches with spouses-delight/joy/peace 36:55-57, facing each other in love 44:51-53, 56:16
bullet Sit on thrones with mates of modest gaze, beautiful eye 37:40-50, 38:49-52, 55:56
bullet Houri al ‘ayn 44:53, unite with houri 52:20, 56:22, n.8, 55:72-74, 56:22, 34; 53:54
bullet Companions, youth 78:33, 52:24, 56:17, 76:9
bullet Description of hell 14:18, 22:19-22

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